Substructure and superstructure in Marx
According to Marx' ideas human history goes down in stagesmax_weber_1894. The stages are characterized primarily by the current production (the base) and only secondly bij opinions, ideas, culture (the superstructure). Changes in production will lead to changes in thinking.

That religion- change and change of production go together, one can read in MAX WEBERs 'Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism'. Some have read in this book that protestantism emerged because the Catholicism of that time did not agree with the hearing in the capitalist profit-principle.

Karl-Marx_klstHerein Max Weber (1864-1920) supports Marx' and Hegels theory  that their is a close relationship between  hegel_klein_jong'superstructure' and 'substructure' and their change.

MARX (1818-1883) (left) attends lectures of HEGEL (1770-1831) (right), who taught the work of Spinoza. Hegel sees history just as Marx as an ongoing process, in which substructure and superstructure interact and arrive at an synthesis. Unlike Marx he sees changes of ideas as the cause of the changing 'substructure'.

Spinoza himself sees mind and matter as two sides of a developing matter.

Marx sees himself as an actor in a developing process. Here exist an agreement with Spinoza, who with his  Theologiscal Political Treatise probably wanted to influence the course of history.


An other student of Hegel, Max STIRNER, has a focus on the individual development as an autonomous person.